Joe's Linux Blog Linux Admin tips and tricks

October 11, 2010

Donations

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , , — jfreivald @ 10:41 am

I had a viewer ask if they could donate to help support one of the projects, so I’ve added a PayPal donation button on the top right. Donations are certainly appreciated but by no means compulsory.

June 9, 2010

Qt 4.6.3 and qt-creator 1.3.1-1 updates for Centos 5.5

Filed under: Centos,Configuration,qt — Tags: , , , , — jfreivald @ 9:49 am

I’ve built the Qt 4.6.3 packages for Centos 5.5.

To install, as root, type:

rpm -ivh http://software.freivald.com/centos/software.freivald.com-1.0.0-1.noarch.rpm
yum update fontconfig fontconfig-devel qt4 qt4-devel qt4-doc qt4-postgresql qt4-odbc qt4-sqlite qt-creator

Also, I’ve updated the qt-creator package to 1.3.1-1.  The issue with the package was that on the 64-bit environment, qt-creator continues to look into /usr/lib/qtcreator for it’s plugins instead of /usr/lib64/qtcreator.  I added a link from /usr/lib/qtcreator to /usr/lib64/qtcreator in the x86_64 arch build.  This means that you should not install the 32-bit version and the 64 bit version on the same machine – but I’m not sure that was ever a good idea in the first place. 🙂

Please post here if you have any issues with the Qt 4.6.3 build or the qtcreator 1.3.1-1.

I’ve also posted the public key that I use to sign the packages here.  To use it, as root, type:

rpm --import http://software.freivald.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-software.freivald.com

NOTE: If you use yum-priorities you will need to set this repository to the same level as ‘core’ for these to install properly.  You’ll know if you have a priorities issue because ‘yum install qt-creator’ will scream at you that you are missing libaries.  These libraries come in the version that I compile but not in the Centos core distribution and if the priorities are wrong it will pull those packages from core.

Cheers.

June 5, 2009

Using rsync to update a website on hostmonster.com

Filed under: Configuration,Web Publishing — Tags: , , , , — jfreivald @ 8:32 pm

I was working on a website with a software repository that had hard links in it. Linking reduces disk space on the server, and when mirroring with rsync, reduces the time needed to sync the entire mirror.  If you are using scp or ftp to push to the server it causes problems because those programs copy each link as a new file, meaning more bandwidth consumed, more time in transfer, and more disk space used on the server side.  Just what we wanted to avoid by using rsync in the first place.

So how do we use rsync to push our web site to the server when we don’t have access to any of the rsyncd configuration files and can’t work with anything higher in the file tree than our home directory?  Sure we could pay more for a dedicated server, but why?  Lets use the tools we have as a simple user to accomplish what we need cheaply and easily.

First, get ssh access for your host server. Hostmonster requires a faxed copy of a picture ID and some other confirmation. Whatever your host requires, follow their procedures.

Test your ssh connection by opening a terminal and typing:

ssh username@hostname

It will ask you if you want to remember the host key and you should respond with a yes.

If you are able to enter your password and log in, you should be at your home directory on the host server. You should be able to see the files for your website with

ls ~/public_html

Type the following commands:

mkdir ~/.ssh
chmod 700 ~/.ssh

Log out and return to your local computer’s prompt and enter the following commands:

ssh-keygen -t dsa -C youremailaddress

ssh-keygen will ask you some questions. Using the default file name (/home/username/.ssh/id_dsa) is fine. It will also prompt you for a password. This will guard your ssh key, and you only have to type it once per session, so make it a good one.

Once complete, you should have two new files in ~/.ssh: id_dsa and id_dsa.pub.   Create a configuration shortcut:

echo -e "host shortname\n\tHostName hostname\n\tUser username" >> ~/.ssh/config

Where shortname is any name that you want to use to represent your website, hostname is the host that you are uploading to, and username is your login name on that server.

Now, send the public key to the server with:

scp ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub username@hostname:~/.ssh/authorized_keys2

Now, to prevent yourself from having to type your password every time you want to copy files or log in, type:

ssh-add

and type your password. This will put your ssh key into an ‘agent’, which will authorize you without a password for the rest of the time you are logged in.  After you log out you’ll have to do ssh-add again, but as long as you stay logged in you should be able to log into the hosting server with a simple:

ssh shortname

No password, no nothing, and all encrypted, too.  Log out of the server and get back to a local prompt.

Change to your directory that has the local copy of your web site, such as:

cd ~/public_html

To push the update your web site, type the command is:

rsync -e ssh -vramlHP --exclude '*.log' --numeric-ids --delete --delete-excluded --delete-after --delay-updates . shortname:~/public_html/

To pull the webserver down to your local directory, the command is:

rsync -e ssh -vralmHP --exclude '*.log' --numeric-ids --delete --delete-excluded --delete-after --delay-updates shortname:~/public_html/ .

It will transmit only the changed data, saving you time, and will properly handle hard and soft links, which will save you space on the server.

Just to finish the job I put them into shell scripts by:

mkdir ~/bin
echo -e '#!/bin/bash\n\nrsync -e ssh -vralHP --numeric-ids --delete --delete-excluded --delete-after --delay-updates localdirectory shortname:~/public_html/\n' >> ~/bin/pushsite
echo -e '#!/bin/bash\n\nrsync -e ssh -vralHP --numeric-ids --delete --delete-excluded --delete-after --delay-updates shortname:~/public_html/ localdirectory\n' >> ~/bin/pullsite
chmod +x ~/bin/pushsite ~/bin/pullsite

Where localdirectory is where you want the site stored locally.

Now typing ‘pushsite’ at a terminal prompt will push the update, and ‘pullsite’ will pull it down from the server (assuming your local bin dir is in your path, which it is on most systems).  Assuming you have previously done an ‘ssh-add’, you won’t even need to use a password.

Of course, this doesn’t backup databases, just static files.  But if you are dealing with static files, rsync can’t be beat.  It will push and pull only the changes, and will properly handle hard and soft links without duplicating the files.

Happy publishing.

May 14, 2009

Subversion, SSL and Apache for Secure, Passwordless, User-based repository access controls

Filed under: Configuration — Tags: , , , — jfreivald @ 9:54 am

I get tired of passwords.  Password here, password there, everywhere a password.

I am a systems designer who does a lot of admin out of necessity.  When I get tired enough of a task, I eliminate it.

I use subversion on several projects to track documentation, source, configurations and more.  All of my servers are SSL only, and use user certificates for identity verification.  Here’s what I did to make passwordless, user-based restrictions on Subversion:

First, make sure that SSL is working on your apache server (if you get a server error when you do an https request, but http://yourserver.com:443 works then SSL is not set up right).

Put the following in /etc/httpd/conf.d/subversion.conf:

<Location /yourSubversionWebLocation>
   DAV svn
   SVNParentPath pathToYourSubversionFolder

   AuthzSVNAccessFile /etc/httpd/yourSubversionAccessFile

   SSLRequireSSL
   SSLVerifyClient require
   SSLUserName SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_Email
   SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
</Location>

Some people might want to use SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN as the user name instead of the email, but in my case I use the CN to put the person’s real full name in the certificate, so the email worked out better.  Also, this way I can have jsmith@company1.com and jsmith@company2.com without a collision.  Use whichever works for your situation.

Put your repository access information into your SVN access file like this:

[shared:/]
user1@yourplace.com = rw
user2@yourplace.com = rw
user3@yourplace.com = rw
readonlyuser@yourplace.com = r

[user1:/]
user1@yourplace.com = rw

[user2:/]
user2@yourplace.com = rw

[user3:/]
user3@yourplace.com = rw

Generate your User SSL keys. I do it with a script (lots of stuff on the web on how to set up your own CA, so I’m not re-hashing it here):

#!/bin/bash

[ "$1" == "" ] && exit -1;

openssl req -config openssl.myconf.cnf -new -sha1 -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout private/$1.key -out csr/$1.pem
openssl ca -config openssl.myconf.cnf -policy policy_anything -extensions usr_cert -out certs/$1.pem -infiles csr/$1.pem
openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in certs/$1.pem -inkey private/$1.key -out userp12/$1.p12

Be sure to use the same email addresses that you use in the SVN authorization file.

To access subversion from the command line, put the following into your .subverions/servers file.  Be certain that the file has strict permissions (chmod -R 0600 ~user1/.subversion; chmod -R 0600 ~user1/certs):

[groups]
myrepositories = <your server address>
[myrepositories]
ssl-authority-files = /home/user1/certs/<your CA file>.crt
ssl-client-cert-file = /home/user1/certs/user1.p12
ssl-client-cert-password = <user's certificate password>

To access it with a browser, import the CA and user certificates into the browser of your choice.  Users should then be able to select your web page and auto-magically get the right repositories with the right permissions.  No passwords needed.

If you want a pretty web interface for your repository, try out websvn.  Use the same SSL configuration information for your websvn.conf as you did for your subversion.conf, follow the install information for websvn, put your repositories into your config.php and you’re done.

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